Curriculum | Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry-I (Theory) | B. Pharmacy

Course: B Pharmacy 2nd Year, 4th Semester

Name of the Subject: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry-I (Theory)

Subject Code: BP405T

S. No. Contents of the Topics Learning Objectives Teaching Guidelines Methodology Time(Hrs)
1. Introduction to Pharmacognosy:
a) Definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy

b) Sources of Drugs – Plants, Animals, Marine & Tissue culture

c) Organized drugs, unorganized drugs (dried latex, dried juices, dried extracts, gums and mucilages, oleoresins and oleo- gum -resins).

At the end of the lecture student should be able to  Describe history and scope of pharmacognosy and explain sources of drugs, organized and unorganized drugs.
  • Definition, History and Scope of Pharmacognosy
  • Sources of Drugs–Plants, Animals,Marine
  • Tissue culture
  • Definition and requirements
  • Callus culture
  • Suspension culture
  • Definition and examples of organized and unorganized drugs

 

Instructive  and student interactive session (SIS) 4
  Classification of drugs: Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, chemical, pharmacological, chemo and sero taxonomical classification of drugs At the end of the lecture student should be able to  Describe the various systems of classification of plants
  • Alphabetical Classification with examples
  • Morphological Classification with examples
  • Taxonomical Classification with examples
  • Chemical Classification with examples
  • Pharmacological Classification with examples
  • Chemotaxonomical classification with examples
Didactic lecture through power point projection. 2
  Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin:

Adulteration of drugs of natural origin. Evaluation by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods and properties. Quantitative microscopy of crude drugs including lycopodium spore method, leaf-constants, camera lucida and diagrams of microscopic objects to scale with camera lucida.

At the end of the lecture student should be able to  Describe the adulteration and evaluation of crude drugs by various methods.
  • Adulteration and its types
  • Organoleptic Evaluation
  • Microscopical Evaluation:
  • Palisade ratio
  • Vein Islet No.
  • Vein Termination No.
  • Stomatal No.
  • Stomatal Index

 

  • Physical Evaluation:
  • Moisture Content
  • Melting Point Determination
  • Refractive Index
  • Optical Rotation
  • Rf Values etc.
  • Chemical Evaluation
  • Chemical tests for diff. plant constituents
Instructive and demonstration and hands on training for evaluating techniques. 4
2. Cultivation, Collection, Processing and storage of drugs of natural origin:
Cultivation and Collection of drugs of natural origin

Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants.

Plant hormones and their applications.

 

Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants. Conservation of medicinal plants.

At the end of the lecture student should be able to  Explain the techniques in cultivation and production of crude drugs. Cultivation, Collection, Processing and storage of drugs of natural origin:

  • Definition and advantages of Cultivation
  • External Factors affecting Cultivation
  • Internal Factors affecting Cultivation
  • Collection, Processing and Storage of drugs
Instructive, Power point presentation, and field visit. 10
3. Plant tissue culture:

Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, Nutritional requirements, growth and their maintenance. Applications of Plant Tissue Culture in Pharmacognosy. Edible Vaccines.

At the end of the lecture student should be able to  Enumerate and describe the various techniques of plant tissue culture and its applications. Plant Tissue Culture:

  • History
  • Definition
  • Types of Tissue Culture
  • Nutritional Requirement
  • Growth Maintenance
  • Applications
Instructive, Power point presentations and video tutorials. 7
4. Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine: Role of Pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely, Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine.

 

At the end of the lecture student should be able to  Explain different system of medicines. Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine:

  • Ayurvedic System of Medicine
  • Homeopathic System of Medicine
  • Unani System of Medicine
  • Siddha System of Medicine
  • Chinese System of Medicine
Didactic lecture through power point projection, group discussion  and visit to Ayurveda, Homeopathy hospitals. 10
5. Study of biological source, chemical nature and uses of drugs of natural origin containing following drugs

Plant Products:
Fibers – Cotton, Jute, Hemp

Hallucinogens, Teratogens, Natural allergens

At the end of the lecture student should be able to  Describe the plant fibres and allergens.
  • Cotton, Jute, Hemp
  • Biological Source
  • Morphological Characters
  • Chemical Constituents
  • Uses
  • Hallucinogens, Teratogens, Natural Allergens

Definition
Types

Instructive, power point presentation and group discussion 2
  Primary metabolites:

General introduction, detailed study with respect to chemistry, sources, preparation, evaluation, preservation, storage, therapeutic used and commercial utility as Pharmaceutical Aids and/or Medicines for the following Primary metabolites: Carbohydrates: Acacia, Agar, Tragacanth, Honey

Proteins and Enzymes : Gelatin, casein, proteolytic enzymes (Papain, bromelain, serratiopeptidase, urokinase, streptokinase, pepsin), Lipids(Waxes, fats, fixed oils) : Castor oil, Chaulmoogra oil, Wool Fat, Bees Wax

At the end of the lecture student should be able to  Describe various primary plant metabolites like carbohydrates, proteins and lipids and their uses. Carbohydrates:

  • Introduction

Acacia, Agar, Tragacanth, Honey:

  • Source
  • Chemistry
  • Preparation
  • Storage
  • Therapeutic Use and Commercial utility

Proteins:

  • Introduction

Gelatin, Casein, Proteolytic Enzymes

  • Source
  • Chemistry
  • Preparation
  • Storage
  • Therapeutic Use and Commercial utility

Lipids:

  • Introduction

Castor Oil, Chaulmogra oil, Wool fat, Bees Wax

  • Source
  • Chemistry
  • Preparation
  • Storage
  • Therapeutic Use and Commercial utility
Diadactic lecture through power point projection and demonstration 4
   

Marine Drugs:
Novel medicinal agents from marine sources

At the end of the lecture student should be able to  Explain marine drugs. Marine Drugs:

  • Introduction
  • Biological Source
  • Chemical Structure
  • Chemical Constituents
  • Uses
Didactic lecture through power point projection. 2