Curriculum | Biochemistry Theory | B. Pharmacy

Course: B. Pharmacy 2nd Semester/ 1st  Year

Name of Subject: Biochemistry Theory

Subject Code:  BP203T

S No.

Contents of the Topics

Learning objectives Teaching guidelines Methodology Time
(Hrs)
1 Carbohydrate metabolism
Glycolysis – Pathway, energetics and significance Citric acid cycle- Pathway, energetics and significance

HMP shunt and its significance; Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency

Glycogen metabolism Pathways and glycogen storage diseases (GSD) Gluconeogenesis- Pathway and its significance

Hormonal regulation of blood glucose level and Diabetes mellitus

(At the end of the session the student should be able to)

Explained the metabolism of Carbohydrates in physiological and pathological conditions.

Explained various metabolic pathways like Glycolytic, Citric Acid Cycle, HMP Shunt and Glycogen metabolic pathway etc.

 

Definition, Importance,
Steps of pathways,
Regulation, Significance,
Functions,
Diseases.

Instructive

 

Power point presentation

 

 

Tutorials

6
2 Biological oxidation
Electron transport chain (ETC) and its mechanism.

Oxidative phosphorylation & its mechanism and substrate level phosphorylation

Inhibitors ETC and oxidative phosphorylation/Uncouplers

Explained the complete oxidation of biomolecules through biological oxidation / electron transport chain.

Explain the mechanism of oxidative phosphosrylation

Stages of oxidation,
redox potentials, enzymes & coenzymes,
high energy compounds,
organization of ET chain,
sites of ATP synthesis,
regulate & inhibitors .
Didactic
Power point presentation
Group discussion
4
3 Lipid metabolism
β-Oxidation of saturated fatty acid (Palmitic acid)
Formation and utilization of ketone bodies; ketoacidosis De novo synthesis of fatty acids (Palmitic acid)

Biological significance of cholesterol and conversion of cholesterol into bile acids, steroid hormone and vitamin D

Disorders of lipid metabolism: Hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, fatty liver and obesity.

Described the metabolism of fatty acids in physiological and pathological conditions.

 

Described the synthesis and β-oxidation of fatty acids and cholesterol

Preparative steps for beta oxidation,beta oxidation steps,Energetics,Regulation.
Metabolism of ketone bodies,ketogenesis,ketolysis,ketosis,causes,consequences,management of ketoacidosis
Functions of cholesterol, structure,biosymthesis steps,excretion.
Classification of lipoproteins
Risk factors & prevention of diseases.
Instructive
Power point presentation
Group discussion
4
4 Amino acid metabolism
General reactions of amino acid metabolism: Transamination, deamination & decarboxylation, urea cycle and its disorders

Catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine and their metabolic disorders (Phenyketonuria, Albinism, alkeptonuria, tyrosinemia)

Synthesis and significance of biological substances; 5-HT, melatonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline

Catabolism of heme; hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice

Described the metabolism of amino acids in physiological and pathological conditions.

 

Described the Catabolism of amino acids

Discussed the synthesis and significance of biological substances

Described the catabolism of heme etc.

General metabolism of amino-acids,transamination,biological & clinical significance,pathways for deamination,detoxification of ammonia.steps of urea cycle,regulaton,disorders.
Steps of catabolism,products from tyrosine,clinical applications of melanin,Diseases-their clinical manifestations,diagnosis,treatment
Functions of heme,structure,biosynthesis,regulation,disorders,generation of bilirubin,disorders hyperbilirubinemias.
Didactic
Power point presentation
Tutorials
6
5 Nucleic acid metabolism and genetic information transfer
Biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides

Catabolism of purine nucleotides and Hyperuricemia and Gout disease Organization of mammalian genome

Structure of DNA and RNA and their functions DNA replication (semi conservative model) Transcription or RNA synthesis

Genetic code, Translation or Protein synthesis and inhibitors

Explained the genetic organization of mammalian genome and functions of DNA in the synthesis of RNAs and proteins Composition of nucleotides,bases present in nucleic acids,biosynthesis of purines nucleotides,salvage pathway,degradation Gout,types,treatment

Watson-crick model of DNA,denaturation of DNA strands,steps of replication,Repair mechanism,RNA types,transcription process steps,reverse transcriptase.
Features of genetic code,translation steps,polyribosomes,inhibitors of protein synthesis.

Didactic
Power point presentation
Group discussion
10
6 Biomolecules
Introduction, classification, chemical nature and biological role of carbohydrate, lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids and proteins.
Discussed about molecular levels of the chemical process associated with living cells Functions,
nomenclature,
types,
reactions,
clinical applications
Power point presentation

Group discussion

 

Tutorials

4
7 Bioenergetics
Concept of free energy, endergonic and exergonic reaction, Relationship between free energy, enthalpy and entropy; Redox potential.

Energy rich compounds; classification; biological significances of ATP and cyclic AMP

Explained the concept of bioenergetics.
Discus about              biological significances of ATP and cyclic AMP
Active site of enzyme, thermodynamic reactions,enzyme kinetics, factors. Didactic

 

Power point presentation

4
8 Enzymes
Introduction, properties, nomenclature and IUB classification of enzymes Enzyme kinetics (Michaelis plot, Line Weaver Burke plot)

Enzyme inhibitors with examples

Regulation of enzymes: enzyme induction and repression, allosteric enzymes regulation

Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of enzymes and isoenzymes Coenzymes –Structure and biochemical functions

Described the catalytic role of enzymes.
Know the importance of enzyme inhibitors in design of new drugs.
Explain the therapeutic and diagnostic applications of enzymes.
Enzymes,characteristics,classification,coenzymes,salient features,mode of action,active site,enzyme kinetics,specificity of enzymes.
Isoenzymes, identification,clinical enzymology
Instructive

Power point presentation

 

Class discussion

7